Breast cancer start when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells form tumour that can often see on an x-ray. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, after skin cancer and second leading cause of cancer death in women after lung cancer. Breast cancer is broadly classified into two include non-invasive and invasive breast cancer. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-invasive cancer of milk duct cells. Invasive breast cancer is divided into two types, invasive ductal carcinoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive ductal carcinoma, also called infiltrating ductal carcinoma and it consists of about 50-75 percent of all breast cancer. Invasive breast cancer that spreads to other parts of the body is called metastatic breast cancer. All non-invasive and invasive breast cancer tested for hormone (oestrogen and progesterone) receptors. The hormone receptor-positive cancer can be treated with hormone therapy such as tamoxifen and an aromatase inhibitor. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women both in developed and developing countries. Breast cancer is most common in U.S. women, with about 252,710 new cases diagnosed and 40,610 die in 2017. Almost 81% of breast cancer are diagnosed among women age 50 years and older, and 89% of breast cancer deaths occur in this age group.
Diagnosis of breast cancer can be done with physical examination, clinical breast examination (CBE), mammogram, ultrasound exam, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), blood test, and biopsy. There are different types of treatment for patients with breast cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Surgery such as breast-conserving surgery, total mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy. Systemic chemotherapy is used in the treatment of breast cancer includes capecitabine (Xeloda), docetaxel (Taxotere), eribulin (Halaven), gemcitabine (Gemzar), paclitaxel (Taxol), vinorelbine (Navelbine), and others. Hormone therapy with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist is given to premenopausal who have been diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Targeted therapy used in breast cancer include trastuzumab, pertuzumab, ado-trastuzumab emtansine, lapatinib, neratinib, palbociclib, ribociclib and abemaciclib.
The diagnosis, staging, and treatment of patients with breast cancer require multidisciplinary care in an acute hospital setting. In the U.S. Genentech Access to Care Foundation (GATCF) scheme helping patients to have access to Herceptin. Genentech Access to Care Foundation (GATCF) scheme helps people who don’t have health insurance coverage and those who have health insurance but have trouble paying for Herceptin. Additionally, Medicare insurance policies pay the fee for a clinical breast examination (CBE) once every two years for women at average risk of breast cancer.
Key players operating breast cancer market are Novartis AG, Genentech, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc, Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc., Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc., AstraZeneca, Apotex Corp. Breckenridge Pharmaceutical, Inc., Pfizer Inc., Alvogen, and others